Preserving Our History: Freezing Infested Materials

by Patrick Kelley, ACE

After discovering that insects are eating away at your personal goods or museum objects, you are faced with the dilemma of how to get rid of the live bugs. Options include a wide range of treatments such as anoxia (low oxygen), inert gas, carbon dioxide, detailed vacuuming and exposure to heat. One of the most popular and easiest methods of treatment though is to simply freeze the items in question. This method is non-toxic, time efficient and does not entail extensive staff training. The museum community’s use of freezing to kill a multitude of common museum pests has been quite successful. Some museums in the United States have treated thousands of objects with low temperatures and have reported no damage on the types of objects that had warnings previously associated with exposure to cold temperatures. Freezing insects to death can be one of the best treatment options.

The general principle to follow is to expose the objects to temperatures as low as possible, as quickly as possible for as long as possible. The guidelines below will kill the majority of museum pests.

The formation of ice crystals within the bodies of the insects is what causes the killing effect. The reason why many insect species survive through icy winters is because they have time to acclimate their bodies to the cold. The insects increase the concentration of glycerol and sugars in their tissues as the temperatures slowly drop. This has the effect of an anti-freeze within their bodies and it prevents the formation of ice crystals. For this reason, it is best to hold the object that you are going to freeze at room temperature for at least one week prior to the exposure to cold. The thermal shock of the quick temperature drop catches the insects unaware and allows the temperatures to have a lethal effect.

General Guidelines for a Low Temperature Treatment:
– Use a freezer that can maintain a temperature of -20°F (-29°C).
– Objects should be placed in sealed bags to reduce ice or condensation damage.
– Sensitive items can be wrapped in tissue paper before being placed in the bags.
– Hold the items at the low temperature for a period of one week or longer.
– Large wooden items or dense materials should be left frozen for longer periods.
– After removal from the freezer, the items should remain in the sealed bags to prevent condensation.
– Once the items reach room temperature for +24 hour period, they can be removed from the bags.
– Items become temporarily brittle at low temperatures, so handling should be kept to a minimum until the items return to room temperature.

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Freezing insects to death can be one of the best treatment options.

References for the material used in this article include the following:
Strang, Thomas, J.K., “Controlling Insect Pests With Low Temperature.” CCI Note 3/3, Canadian Conservation Institute, 1997.
Integrated Pest Management Working Group, “Low Temperature Treatment Fact Sheet.” [Accessed 2, November, 2010] Available at http://www.museumpests.net/treatment.asp.

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A Guide to Clothes Moths

A Guide to Clothes Moths

By: James Feston, Director of Product Research for Insects Limited, Inc.

Webbing clothes moth

clothes moth - james article

Webbing clothes moths were likely introduced into the United States before the 1860’s. They often travel with clothing, rugs or other belongings containing wool or other natural animal products. The larval stage alone is responsible for damage to materials. The adult moths lack functional, chewing mouthparts. Damage is most often concentrated in dark areas including crevices or creases in their preferred food. Examples of these dark areas could be; under furniture and cushions, where carpets and textiles are folded and in garments under collars, cuffs and folds. Adult clothes moths are secretive and are often found in these darkened places. They will attempt to hide when disturbed and will often run, hop or fly short distances to escape. They are weak fliers compared to other moth species. The males are much more active fliers than the females. Males actively seek out female moths in order to mate. Males and females can penetrate narrow cracks as they find their way in storage cabinets and boxes. Once mated, females look for suitable food sources to lay their eggs. The extremely small larvae can find their way into many storage containers that appear to be pest-proof making detection difficult.

Description 

The larva is whitish colored with a brown to black head. Clothes moths are small, straw-colored, yellow-tan, or buffcolored insects, with narrow wings fringed with hairs. A tuft of hairs on the head is upright and coppery to reddish-gold in color. Adult length is 7-10 mm with a wingspan of about 10 mm. A webbing clothes moth infestation is often detected from damaged fabrics and by the presence of silken webs spun by the larvae, sometimes producing only scattered patches of silk. The webbing clothes moth larva spins silk as a tunnel or sheet of webbing across the attacked material under which it grazes. Damage is accompanied by webbing tubes or sheets which frequently include large amounts of frass, and infestations appear far more ‘messy’ than the damage caused by case-making clothes moth (Tinea pellionella).

clothes moth - james article 2

Food & Feeding 

Generally, developmental time for the clothes moth from egg to adult in room temperature is approximately 45 days. Mating and egg laying begins almost immediately after adults emerge from the pupa. The adult life span of the moth is 1 month. Adult moths do not feed.

Signs of Infestation 

Clothes moth larvae feed on woolens, mohair, feathers, fur, hair,
leather, dead insects and dried animal carcasses. Infestations occur in clothing, carpets, rugs, furs, fabrics, blankets, stored wool products, upholstery, mounted animals, piano felts, fish meal, milk powder, and brush bristles. The larva may feed on fabrics of vegetable origin or synthetics, if the fabrics are mixed with wool, or may use such materials to construct their cocoons. Synthetics, cottons, and other plant materials are not attacked by the webbing clothes moth larvae unless these items are stained with food or body oils. Although synthetics may be ingested, they cannot be digested.

Signs of Infestation 

Clothes moth larvae feed on woolens, mohair, feathers, fur, hair,
leather, dead insects and dried animal carcasses. Infestations occur in clothing, carpets, rugs, furs, fabrics, blankets, stored wool products, upholstery, mounted animals, piano felts, fish meal, milk powder, and brush bristles. The larva may feed on fabrics of vegetable origin or synthetics, if the fabrics are mixed with wool, or may use such materials to construct their cocoons. Synthetics, cottons, and other plant materials are not attacked by the webbing clothes moth larvae unless these items are stained with food or body oils. Although synthetics may be ingested, they cannot be digested.

Life Cycle 

Female moths can lay up to 57 small, pinhead-sized, white eggs on or near the fabric, clothing, or furnishing they infest.

Casemaking Clothes Moth 

Casemaking clothes moths are worldwide in distribution. The common name of casemaking clothes moth comes from the fact that the larvae will carry a silken case with it throughout the entire larval stage until pupation. The case consists of silken material produced by the larva intertwined with fibers from the material it is feeding on. As the larva grows, it will enlarge the case by making a slit on both sides of the case and inserting triangular sections of new material. In this same fashion, it will increase the length of the case by adding new material to either end. The case is essential to pupation and if the case is removed from the larva when it is near pupation it will die. The larva will drag the case with it as it feeds. It will thrust out its head and thoracic legs and pull the case along with it. Immediately prior to pupation, the larva will often seek a protected site such as a crevice, wall or often the ceiling of the room of the infestation.

Description

Larvae are pale yellow when hatched and, as they age, turns more white with a brownish head. Larva will always drag a silken case around with it.
Adults have three dark spots on each front wing. Wings are brown/tan/gray and are long and narrow. Hind wings are fringed with long hairs.

Food and Feeding 

Potential foods include any feather material, woolens, rugs, felts, hair and furs (This includes animal mounts and fur garments). It is reported that it will also feed on spices, tobacco, hemp and skins. The case-making clothes moth will rarely spin a web on the material on which it is feeding. The larva of Tinea pellionella will feed in a random pattern over its food source, pulling its case behind it.

Signs of Infestation 

The amount of damage done to the material is based directly on how much time it spends in any one location. Fecal pellets from the feeding larvae will drop beneath the material or fall into folds and increases in the textiles, rugs and furs. The cases for the pupating moths will often be attached to the wall or ceiling around the infested material. Sometimes the pupal cases will be attached to the material itself, attached only by a silk thread produced by the larva. Where webbing clothes moths (Tineola bisselliella) will often integrate their pupal cases into the fabric or fur that it feeds upon, the case for the case-making clothes moth is distinctly separate from the feeding substrate.

Life Cycle 

The gravid female moth will lay 37-48 eggs randomly over potential food sources. The eggs will hatch in 4-7 days. The larval stage builds a case of silk which it enlarges as it grows. The larval stage will last from 68-87 days. Prior to pupation, the larva will often migrate to a protected area to pupate. The whole pupation period will last 9-19 days. The adult moths will only live 4-6 days. The males will be active fliers searching out the females, which generally remain stationary. A typical population will have 3–4 generations per year.
Current best Practices in Clothes Moth Management 

The key to eliminating clothes moth infestations is to interrupt the clothes moth life cycle. The damaging larval stage cannot be caught in moth traps but can be eliminated via other means. The following list represents the current best practices of a moth removal program.

Heat 

Clothes moth larvae and eggs can be quickly killed with high heat. Placing garments on hangers in a closed car on a hot, sunny day will eradicate the immature stages. Hanging garments in black plastic bags and hanging in direct sunlight on a hot day can achieve the same results. Smaller items like woolen socks, mittens, scarves, hats and sweaters can be placed in a tumble dryer (without washing) and exposed to the heat on a high setting for 30 minutes. Larger items like rugs can be placed over the porch banisters and exposed to the direct sun for a couple of hours then turned over so that all sides get exposed. Beating these rugs will also help dislodge eggs and larvae from the base of the fibers.

Cold 

Clothes moth larvae and eggs can also be killed with a long exposure to freezing temperatures. Items to be frozen should be wrapped in plastic, frozen in a chest freezer at 18°C for three days. Garments can be cleaned following freezing.

Cold Storage 

A good solution for Spring to Fall storage of furs is to use a cold storage service at a professional furrier or fur store.
Dry Cleaning 

Expensive woolen jackets, uniforms, dresses, slacks and garments with ‘dry clean only’ labels should be taken to the dry cleaner.
Steam Cleaning 

Upholstered furniture and carpets can be cleaned using a steam cleaner. Hot steam will kill eggs and larvae on contact.
Professional Cleaning

Large rugs should be taken out and cleaned by a professional service. They can put these rugs into large pools with cleaners, have them washed, dried and repaired if damaged.
Damaged or dirty furs should be cleaned by a furrier or fur store with this service. They have the proper cleaning agents and drying equipment to remove perspiration and other spills on the hair and fabric.

Brushing 

Some garments or rugs may show signs of damage (webbing or granular debris). This may be simply removed with a fine brush. This is an important step after freezing or heating garments to remove debris. If the garment is damaged in the future, new damage will be evident compared to old damage.
Vacuuming

Regular vacuuming of the carpets and rugs including under furniture can help remove eggs and larvae over time. This keeps the population from accumulating and reduces the chances of damage. A crack and crevice tool to clean out the gaps around the edges of the rooms is extremely effective.

Prevention 

After completing the large amount of cleaning, freezing and heating it would be wise to place all the clothing in ‘garment bags’ then have one side clear and the other side breathable fabric. These will protect and prevent further attacks from moths that may have been missed or reintroduced into the home. Other small items may be placed in sealed bags or tight containers. Make sure they are sealable on all sides and do not have ‘vents’. You should also be sure that there are no active larvae in these garments or clothing before sealing them.

Trapping and Monitoring 

Pheromone traps are an excellent tool to capture moths. Before and after cleaning the home and personal belongings, these traps can help monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of any cleaning efforts. Continue to monitor sensitive areas to monitor for resurgence or reintroduction.
Inspection

It is difficult to monitor every location at all times, so visual inspection is critical to see if there is activity under various spaces present in homes such as cabinets, inside a piano, cold air return duct, or other odd locations. If you see a moth, you should start looking around immediately to track down the source.
Insects Limited, Inc.

16950 Westfield Park Rd., Westfield, IN.46074

InsectsLimited.com

Phone:1-317-896-9300

Fax: 1-317-867-5757

Bad Bugs: Indian Meal Moth

by Alain VanRyckeghem, BCE Technical Director

What is the most critical damage caused by Indian meal moths – individually or as a whole?

Indian meal moths (IMM) either directly consume the stored food product, (bird seed, pet foods, candy bars etc.) and contaminate it with their presence, webbing, and waist products, or they indirectly contaminate product (food and nonfood) in storage from wandering larvae in search of pupation sites. One infested package of product can be a source of larvae that search out other food products to continue feeding or usually to pupate on the surface or interior spaces of the packages. Perfectly sealed packages that contain baby formula, for example, may have no infestation, but the presence of larvae on the container will cause consumer complaints and rejection of the product. This is essentially collateral damage from another food product.

Why is monitoring for IMM crucial, and what is the best way to monitor?

Monitoring for IMM is designed to be an early warning system. Detection of a couple of moths early in the season can help prevent or reduce further outbreaks during the summer and fall. Traps with sex pheromones to attract male moths are a tool that can operate 24 hours 7 days a week and can be placed in any environment. Placement can be in a grid system to detect recent invasions or can be targeted (concentrated) to monitor selected storage areas or help pinpoint the infestation.

Moth traps need to be monitored weekly, due to the trap’s short life cycle. The objective is to detect sudden rises in catch rates indicating a recent introduction of infested product or a sanitation issue that has been overlooked. Lure and traps are to be replaced according to manufacturer’s recommendation which is usually 8 weeks. All traps and lures should be replaced at the same time. Do not stagger the replacement schedule as this leads to old lures stationed beside new lures, resulting in misinterpretation of the source infestations.

imm

What are the steps that should be taken if IMM are detected?

If IMM are detected, inspection of product near the monitors with most activity is necessary. Flashlight inspections to find active larvae, webbing, and food spills are the primary goals of the inspection. Detection of insect activity will require movement and segregation of the product for further action. This may include cleaning, disassembly, fumigation or disposal. Pallets with insect activity should be covered with a PE pallet cover before moving to reduce accidental dispersal to uninfested areas. Sanitation issues should be cleaned up and discarded outdoors in an approved dumpster system. Continue monitoring traps at the area of original activity and adjacent traps. Further activity will require repeated inspections.

How can IMM moth infestations be prevented?

The first line of defense to prevent infestation of a facility is to stop infested materials from being accepted at the receiving areas. This requires receivers to be aware of the presence of webbing on boxes or bags, live and dead larvae in the stretch wrap, and live moths flying out of the trailer or off a pallet. These are clear signs of activity and should not be ignored. Detailed inspection can locate these products with activity and should be rejected. The potential use of a pheromone trap in the trailer placed by the vendor at the time of shipment can also give an early warning to the receiver if this trailer has moth activity.

Is there anything else I should be aware of about IMM activity?

Indian meal moths are temperature dependent. Moth flight and reproduction usually does not occur when the environment is below 64 °F. The absence of Indian meal moths in pheromone traps in cool warehouses or cold trailers during shipment is not a fool proof way of determining if moths are present or if larvae are actively feeding on stored product in storage. At these times, a proactive inspection program by the PMP or in house sanitarian is recommended.

Outdoor trapping, making it work for you

Outdoor trapping, making it work for you

Outdoor trapping can be one of the most important, and most overlooked elements of your pheromone program. Read on to learn why it is important as well as some common misconceptions, and how to set up a program.

Knowing the pest pressure coming from outdoors can explain interior trap catches that don’t seem to relate to an infestation indoors..  Several types of common food pests can exist in large numbers in the wild and may just be waiting to come inside. The most common source for some of these insects in residential areas may be from nearby trees that have dropped acorns, walnuts, hickory nuts etc, in the autumn months. Another common source is bird seed in a neighbor’s garage that becomes infested. In industrial settings, infestations can come from nearby food manufacturing facilities, spilled grain on rail tracks, spillage from grain bins, or from grain that has fallen on the ground in agriculture fields.

It is common and perfectly reasonable question to ask “If I’m putting pheromone traps near my facility, aren’t I attracting insects to come in?!” The short answer is “no.” Pheromone traps attract only males who are incapable of infesting product. Also, if you are catching insects in your traps you know that the insects are ALREADY THERE If you know you are catching males in your pheromone traps, females are present as well but are not drawn to the trap. The information you are gaining from your outdoor trapping program can be used to enhance your pest program as well as reduce infestations

Warm months are the best time to monitor your outside insect pressure. The most common food insects found outdoors are warehouse beetle, Indian meal moth, and cigarette beetle. Your goal is to create an outdoor perimeter by placing traps 30-50’ away from the building being monitored. Place the traps approximately 50’ apart if possible, larger facilities may require 75-100’. Tie off the traps on existing fences, trees or onto stakes placed into the ground. Doorways and outdoor loading docks are one of your biggest sources of infiltration meaning that these areas should have a greater concentration of outdoor monitors. Aim for 20-30’ spacing in these high-risk areas.

Outdoor trapping can provide you with real information to help you solve your individual pest problem. Outdoor trapping kits are available at Insects Limited here: Warehouse Beetle and Indian Meal Moth. For other insects or for use and placement advice call us anytime and our helpful staff can put together a custom kit to fit your program.

 

Bad Bugs: Clothes Moths

By Alain VanRyckeghem, BCE
Technical Director

Webbing Clothes Moth

Identification: Webbing clothes moths (WCM) Tineola bisselliella are the most common of the moths attacking stored materials containing feathers, wool, or hair. It has a uniform shiny gold color with a reddish orange tuft of hairs on the head. The casemaking
clothes moth (CMCM) Tinea pellionella is less common and appears as uniform silvery
grey to shiny light brown, with dark grayish hairs on the top of the head and often with a small dot in the middle of the forewings. Both moths are similar in size, about 5–6 mm (3/16”) head to wingtip.

Life Cycle: The typical time to complete the life cycles for these moths can be in the 5–12 week range under optimum conditions, but as long as 16 weeks to a couple of years under adverse conditions. The WCM favors a warm environment with relative humidity (RH) in the 70% range, but can tolerate RH to 30%. The CMCM develops faster in higher RH, near 90%, and prefers cooler temperatures. The optimum temperature for WCM is 84–87° F while CMCM prefer 74–77°F. Adult WCM will live for up to 4 weeks, whereas the CMCM will only live for a week.

Biology and Behavior: Webbing clothes moths are most active indoors from April to November. They may also be caught in traps near the exterior of homes (see article about outdoor trapping of WCM). In well heated homes these moths can be caught in monitoring traps in the winter months as well. In December 2011, our room temperature lab cultures had more than 10,000 WCM in larval form and about 30% emerged as adults for the Christmas celebrations! Unlike CMCM we do not see the WCM having any significant natural breeding habitat outside of human habitation. CMCM can often be found in small nests of birds or in unheated buildings with bird activity or farm animals.

Webbing clothes moths are reluctant to fly, especially females, if located in storage areas with edible garments or antique materials with feather, hair, fur, or with woolen floor coverings. They run very quickly when disturbed and hide from bright lights. The
cream colored larvae have brown head capsules and freely run around the infested materials, sometimes within silken tunnels. They usually produce white pupae on the infested material; leaving damage that resembles granular pepper and short trails of webbing.

Case-making clothes moths are considered excellent fliers and can easily move about a structure looking for new harborage sites in ideal temperature and humidity zones. The larvae have black head capsules and travel about within a case of woven material that often contains the colored threads of the infested article. Damage is similar to WCM except that there will be no streaks of webbing and often the pupation may be away from the site of infestation, perhaps on a wall or a ceiling.

Monitoring and Control: The behavior of the two moths dictates the proper choice of trap and lure. Webbing clothes moths prefer to hop and jump into a trap, with a three pheromone blend lure, sitting on a shelf, a cabinet, or floor, in a drawer or under
furniture. The CMCM prefers to fly into a trap rather than land and walk into it. Hanging traps with a single pheromone lure is the best choice for this moth. While there can be some cross attraction to the lures by each moth, research has shown that best results are achieved when using the proper lure for the moth species present.

Control of these pests requires considerable effort on the part of the home owner or commercial client. Moth traps can capture lots of moths, but like food moth infestations, if the source of the moths (larvae) is not removed, treated or frozen, then the traps continue to harvest moths, while the damage caused by larvae continues to grow. Some structural
treatment of the home or building and floor coverings can help reduce the activity, but a careful examination of the wardrobe and storage rooms/closets is necessary to find the hidden infestations.

Start with the Insect First

Start with the Insect First

By David K. Mueller, BCE

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One insect is found more often than any other stored food and grain insect in the United States, Japan and Europe. This is the Indianmeal moth (a.k.a. Miller moth, Mealy moth, and Grain moth). This small moth alone is responsible for much of the problems associated with seed, popcorn, natural health food, pet food, cereal based mixes, candy, nuts, and stored grain products. Let’s take a look at this “Dirty Rat” that spends your money so freely and causes 100’s of millions of dollars in finished food to be discarded each year:

• The IMM female lays between 350-500 eggs in her short life span.

• The adult IMM only lives for 7-10 days and doesn’t eat but may drink (often found in the sink, vase, or toilet).

• She lays her eggs at night singly or in clusters up to 40.

• She lays her eggs where they have a better chance of surviving. This is near creases in bags containing food or seed where they are hidden from egg parasites.

• The IMM larva can survive outdoors during our worst winters only to start a new generation in the spring. The larval stage of the IMM is the damaging and the overwintering stage.

• The larva stage lasts for two weeks or longer and goes through 5-6 molts before reaching the pupa stage.

Penetrating Packaging

The first instar larva is small enough to crawl through this period (.). It vigorously searches for the smell of food and searches packaged materials until it finds a small defect in the package and then penetrates. If it doesn’t find food in two days, it will die. It is amazing to most humans how this insect finds a way into a package. However, millions of years of evolution have taught it and its offspring to find a meal or die.

After finding food, the larva eats and starts to grow. It now spins a single silken thread from spinnerets under its mouth. This webbing has several purposes. It helps the larva crawl across surfaces. This could be the surface of a grain or a burlap bag. The IMM webbing left by the larva acts as an oviposition site (egg laying) for females to cue in on an area than other moths have used to survive and grow. In the winter months the thick webbing acts as a blanket and can help the moths stay warm, continue growing, propagate; and it forms a protective layer against its natural parasitic enemies.

During the sixth instar (molting stage) the IMM larvae needs to wander from this site. This inherent need to wonder causes it to chew out the bag that it once penetrated as a small first instar larva. The IMM larvae will graze across a plastic bag, testing it occasionally for weakness. When it finds a weak spot, it will begin the laborious task of slashing at it with its rasping mouthparts (like a sickle). After hundreds of slashes it may break through or go on to another location. This is much like a man trying to dig a hole in the ground. Some locations are hard and rocky and some are soft and easy. The larva will then crawl though the round hole and may find a nice safe cardboard fluted box or a 90-degree angle to secure itself. The pupa stage is a defenseless quiescent stage that is vulnerable to attack by natural predators. The larva carefully chooses safe perch to start pupation. This will be the location where the IMM adult will dry its wings when it emerges from its transformation to take the first flight of its life, perhaps into a sticky pheromone trap.

The first generation of IMM in much of North America emerges from the overwintering (large) larva in April-May. In the tropical regions of the United States it can stay active most of the year. This moth doesn’t like to fly when the temperatures are below 62-65° F or less. Pheromone traps should be placed when temperatures reach 60° degrees F/ 17° C or higher.

The IMM goes through a new generation every 4-6 weeks during the warm summer months and 5-8 weeks in the cooler months. In the insect rearing lab at Insects Limited, Inc. we can shorten a generation of IMM to 18 days when the temperatures are set for 29 C/ 85 F and 60% relative humidity on a special diet.

In the Midwest we normally have 3 generations per year (400 x 400 x 400 offspring). In warm summers like the ones we have experienced in the past five years, we are getting 4 generations per year (400 x 400 x 400 x 400 offspring). The reproductive potential then is 26 billion IMM from one pair. With the number of 90-degree weather days doubling last year in many parts of the country, one can see how this moth has been such a nuisance.

The IMM does not carry diseases known to man or causes health problems like mosquitoes, bees, or flies. It is a nuisance pest that contaminates food in your home and your factory with its presence or its webbing. It lives outdoors naturally and feeds on grass seed and cereal protein.

In a survey conducted by Dr. M. Hirao of Japan, over 95% of the 200 households survey from around Japan had IMM indoors and also outdoors.

The IMM does not like hot weather. They are seldom found in the tropical areas like Southeast Asia or Hawaii. Found there are related cousinslike the Rice moth, or the Cocoa moth. The temperate region of the world is where the IMM survives best.

One characteristic that Alain Van Ryckeghem of Insects Limited, Inc. recently discovered is that the IMM adults like to stay near the walls. The pheromone traps near the center of the room capture fewer adult males than the ones near walls. The adult moth seems to prefer resting on the walls in a vertical posture. Pheromone traps are very effective in locating IMM. The traps should be placed in a convenient location away from children or fork truck operators. Write the date on the trap when they are first placed and again when the lures are changed. The lures should be changed every 8-10 weeks indoor and 4 weeks outdoors. The traps should be changed when dust accumulates on the sticky surface or the numbers of moths make change necessary. Check the traps weekly if possible and remove all captured insects. Keep excellent records and maps of trap location. Predicting future population trends will be possible by closely evaluated and mapping the collected data.

Conclusion:

Pest management begins with prevention and monitoring. The pheromone traps for stored product insects shouldn’t be considered a control tool but rather sensitive detection and monitoring tool. The accumulated data will help predict future populations for pest insects and better determine the best time for directing a pesticide control program. After several years of collecting data a pest manager can fine-tune his/her pest management program to compensate for unusually warm weather or other circumstances that arise. The Indianmeal moth is predictably programmed through 1000’s of years of evolution. It is a controllable nuisance pest of store products. It all starts with knowing the pest… Knowing the pest is half the battle in controlling it.

The All Beetle Trap

By Alain VanRyckeghem, BCE Technical Director

For many years, Insects Limited has sold beetle traps from several different manufacturers and has sold its own Pantry Patrol and PC Floor trap alongside them. By working with these traps we have seen a variety of good and bad trap characteristics available in a wide price range. Recently we decided to take the better trap characteristics, eliminate the bad and create a newly designed trap. After two years of design and prototype testing, the All Beetle Trap™ is ready for sale. This pheromone lure contains beetle pheromones for Red flour beetle and Confused flour beetle (Tribolium spp), Cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne), Warehouse beetle (Trogoderma spp.), Rice weevil (Sitophilus spp), and will attract over 20 species of stored product beetles.

New All Beetle Trap